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제주도방언의 언어지리학적 연구

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Abstract
The present study is twofold: 1) to present the geographical distribution of the Jeju dialect and 2) to investigate the changing status of different dialects. Traditionally, the division of Jeju dialect is made according to physical geography by which 14 places are considered for the present study including Biyangdo and Gapado. These two islands are investigated to see the linguistic aspects of islands.
Questionnaire consists of 310 items which are a list of 305 words and 5 questions which ask the opinion of informants. Productive 155 words out of 310 are used for a lexical distribution which is considered for , producing a total of 161 maps. The following conclusions are made from the map:

1.
An isogloss east to west in the northen Jeju is made from Jeju to Jocheon. The one in the southern Jeju is drawn from Seogwi to Jungmun. These are two representative isoglosses dividing the eastern and western Jeju dialect.
This isogloss has something to do with Dongseodohyeon which was found in the Goryeo dynasty lasting for 116 years from 1300 to 1416. The Dongseodohyeon has been considered as a geographical line which divide Jeju into two parts, east and west. It is used for the isogloss for the Jeju dialect.
Another isogloss flows north to south. This is more closely related to the political administrative units such as Jeju, Daejeong-Hyeon, and Jeongui-Hyeon all of which were established in 1416. The northern part of Jeju is called Jeju-Mok and the southern part of Jeju is divided into the two: Jeongui-Hyeon east and Daejeong-Hyeon west. These kind of division made a contribution to the establishment of sub-dialectal area. Dongseodohyeon found in Goryeo become the single unit in the Joseon dynasty, while the eastern and western units introduced in the Goryeo dynasty remain the same with the different names: Jeongui-Hyeon and Daejeong-Hyeon This is still true of the present day. The terms south of the mountain and north of mountain is a reflection of an isogloss subconsciously existing in the Jeju people's mind.
As a result, the division of the Jeju dialect seems to be overlapping Dongseodohyeon and the map of Jeju with three cities. Accordingly, the Jeju dialect can be divided into four sub-dialectal areas below.

① North-eastern Jeju dialect: JocheonㆍGujwaㆍUdo
② North-western Jeju dialect: Jeju, Aewol, Hallim(Biyangdo), Hangyeong.
③ South-eastern Jeju dialect: Seogwipo, Namwon, Pyoseon, Seongsan.
④ South-western Jeju dialect: Jungmun, Andeok, Daejeong, Gapado, Marado.

2.
The three islands Udo, Biyangdo and Gapado represent the sub-dialectal area respectively. Udo belongs to the area of north-eastern Jeju dialect, Biyangdo to the area of north-western Jeju dialect, and Gapado to the area of south-western dialect. A farming in groups just started in 1842. This means that it is not that far to use its own language in Jeju. However, there is a clear distinction in the use of language in Jeju and its affiliated islets which is mainly separated by ocean. This difference is evident in the use of 22 lexical items(14.2%) out of 155 used for the language map. 14.2% is not a big number, but it is enough to make a linguistic distinction between Jeju and its affiliated islets. The difference is due to both living environment and natural surroundings.

3.
The sub-dialectal division recognized by the public generally goes with the administrative system with three Hyeon. This can be understood as a reflection that people have this system lasted more than 500 from the Joseon dynasty. The recognition of people regarding use of language is closely tied with the division of administrative system. Among 155 lexical items, the clearest distinction is found in the use of language between Daejeong and Jeongui. Of 155, 54(34.8%) lexical items are different between these two areas. Next, 48(30.9%) different between Jeju and Jeongui followed by 17(10.9%) between Jeju and Daejeong. Also, there exists the difference in the use of language in the same area, which represents the psychological importance leading to the cognitive distinction of the dialect. This difference proves that the linguistic change takes places among people in a certain community.

4.
There is 50-year difference between Hyun Pyeong-Hyo's works and the present research. In spite of time difference, there still exist the same forms of dialect. Of course, there is different forms of dialect. That is, some linguistic items collected in Hyun's work disappear for the present study and vice versa.

5.
The map based on the lexical items shows that there are a lot of old forms which originate from the time of Hunminjeongeum as well as some forms which keep the form of (ㆍ) not existing in modern Korean. Of 155, 36(23.2%) (excluding the words with (ㆍ)) is responsible for this. That's why Korean linguists and dialectologiet put a keen interest in the study of the Jeju language.

The present study has some limitations. First, because of the main purpose of making a linguistic map of the Jeju dialect, the present study focuses on the only one place from 14 major places, respectively. Thus, the present study is limited not covering the various places. Second, focusing on the lexical distribution, the present study does not deal with grammatical and phonological aspects of the Jeju dialect. This kind of imbalance should be made up in the future research.
In the process of data-collection, it is noticed that informants come up with the standard Korean lexicon over the Jeju dialect. Many times, they do not make the immediate response with the Jeju dialect. Instead, they respond with the expressions such as "that's right," "That is not ~ Uh" to the items the surveyor presents. This is an evidence that the Jeju dialect disappears. Consequently, it is necessary for us to preserve the Jeju dialect with the proper data-recording and systematic language management. Recognizing the necessity of preserving language in an urgent way, UNESCO registers the Jeju dialect as 'critically endangered language' Dec. of 2010.
Author(s)
김순자
Issued Date
2011
Type
Dissertation
URI
http://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000005409
Alternative Author(s)
Kim, Soon Ja
Affiliation
제주대학교
Department
대학원 국어국문학과
Advisor
강영봉
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 서 론 ············································································ 9
1. 연구 목적과 방법 ······························································· 9
2. 선행 연구 ········································································ 13
3. 조사 방법과 조사 개요 ························································ 16

Ⅱ. 방언 지도와 방언 분포 ················································· 23
1. 언어지도 작성 ··································································· 23
2. 어휘 해설 ········································································ 24
1) 농사 관련 어휘 ······························································ 24
2) 음식 관련 어휘 ······························································ 30
3) 의복 관련 어휘 ······························································ 40
4) 집 관련 어휘 ································································· 45
5) 도구 관련 어휘 ······························································ 49
6) 민속 관련 어휘 ······························································ 57
7) 인체 관련 어휘 ······························································ 60
8) 사람 관련 어휘 ······························································ 66
9) 질병 관련 어휘 ······························································ 71
10) 육아 관련 어휘 ······························································ 74
11) 놀이 관련 어휘 ······························································ 76
12) 자연 관련 어휘 ······························································ 79
13) 동물 관련 어휘 ······························································ 84
14) 식물 관련 어휘 ······························································ 102
15) 동사 ··········································································· 116
16) 형용사 ········································································ 122
17) 감탄사 ········································································ 124
18) 부사 ·········································································· 125
19) 보조동사 ····································································· 125

Ⅲ. 방언 구획과 방언 분화 ··············································· 127
1. 방언 구획 ······································································· 127
1) 방언 분화의 지리적 유형 ··················································· 127
2) 방언 분화의 양상 ···························································· 131
2. '큰섬'과 '작은섬'의 방언 분화 ···························· 133
3. 인상적 방언 분화 ····························································· 137
1) 언중 심리 속에 내재된 방언 구획 ······················· 138
2) 경계 지점의 언중들의 방언 구획 ·················· 139
3) 언중 심리 속에 내재된 방언 경계 ·················· 141
4) 언중 의식 속의 방언 구획과 실제 조사와의 비교 ·········· 143

Ⅳ. 실재 시간에 따른 방언 변화 ······································ 145
1. 실재 시간 ······································································ 145
2. 변화의 양상과 유형: 현평효(玄平孝) 자료집과의 비교 ···········145

Ⅴ. 결 론 ········································································· 202

참고 문헌 ··········································································· 208

영문 요약 ··········································································· 212

부록
1. 제주도 언어지도 목록 ····················································· 215
2. 제주도 언어지도 ···························································· 217
3. 제주도방언 조사 질문지 ·················································· 299
Degree
Doctor
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
김순자. (2011). 제주도방언의 언어지리학적 연구
Appears in Collections:
General Graduate School > Korean Language and Literature
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