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시비방법에 따른 감귤원 토양의 미생물 활성과 군집 다양성

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Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the long-term different fertilization management on soil microbial activities such as microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phospholipid fatty acid(PLFA) content, bacterial community structures and diversity in volcanic ash citrus orchard soil. Experiment plots composed no-fertilization(Control), Compost, half of recommend application plus Compost(1/2NPK+Compost), recommend application(NPK), recommend application plus Compost(NPK+Compost), 3 times recommend application(3NPK).

Effect of the long-term(13 yrs) different fertilization management on microbial activities and community structures were summarized as follow:
1. Total PLFA content was significantly higher at NPK+Compost than 3NPK in March and May.
2. Distribution of microbial group by using PLFA profiles as biomarkers were high in September and that was in the order of bacteria>fungi>actinomycetes>mycorrhiza. However, Distribution of fungi and mycorrhiza were decreased significantly in control and 3NPK. Biological index such as G-/G+, F/B, cy19:0/18:1ω7c, and Unsat/sat ratios were increased with increasing temperature and those were high in September.
3. Principal component analysis of microbial community by PLFA pattern showed that PLFA profiles in 3NPK and Compost were different other treatments in March.
4. Microbial biomass C and N contents were high 1/2NPK(including NPK) +Compost compared with Compost only and chemical fertilizers(NPK, 3NPK). Thus, metabolic quotients(qCO2) was highest in 3NPK among the other treatments.
5. Soil enzyme activities showed seasonal changes and those that were different significantly between treatments in May. Dehydrogenase activity was two times higher in 1/2NPK+Compost than the Control. β-Glucosidase(NPK and 1/2NPK+Compost), urease(NPK+Compost), and acid phosphatase(Compost) activities were significantly higher than those of 3NPK and Control treatment.
6. Composition change in microbial community structures, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities affected by fertilization effect and environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture.
7. In conclusion, Microbial activities were low in 3NPK and the Control compared with NPK(1/2NPK)+Com., which showed difference in community structures.

Effect of the long-term(16 yrs) different fertilization management on bacterial group changes, species richness estimators, diversity indices, and community structures in volcanic ash citrus orchard soil were summarized as follow:
1. Rarefaction curves at the 97% sequence similarity showed that distribution range of a clone and the OTUs were high in 1/2NPK+Compost, which were at 5,769-7,982 and 2,181-4,112 in May, respectively.
2. Species richness estimators of Ace, Chao1, and Shannon diversity indices showed higher in 1/2NPK+Compost than other treatments, which were 19,361, 6,428, 10,906, 7.8, respectively.
3. In phylum level, The most abundant bacterial group were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and those occupied at 58.0-82.9% among the soil-borne bacterial community in citrus orchard soil.
4. In genera level, The dominant bacteria group were Pseudolabrys, Bradyrhizobium, Arthrobacter, which were distributed range at 16.1-32.1%. Bacterial diversity showed seasonal changes and that were more diverse in genera than phylum level.
5. Soil pH showed a positive correlated with Ace, Chao1 richness estimators(p<0.05) and Shannon diversity indices (p<0.01). But exch. Alwas negatively correlated with those (p<0.05).
6. In conclusion, Bacterial community diversity affected by volcanic ash characteristics and pH changes in citrus orchard soil.

Effect of incubation temperature on nitrogen mineralization rate, PLFA content, and enzyme activities during incubation period in volcanic(VBS) and non volcanic ash soil(NVBS) treated with organic materials such as pellet(OFPE) and powder (OFPO)organic fertilizers, pig manure compost(PMC), and food waste compost(FWC) were summarized as follow:
1. Considering on soil pH and C/N ratio, Organic matter decomposition rate was more easily in NVBS than VBS. Nitrogen mineralization rate increased with increasing temperature and that was in the order of OFPO>FWC>OFPE>PMC. OFPO was most highest among the organic matter in both VBS and NVBS.
2. In 75 days, Total PLFA content was higher in NVBS than VBS. That was higher at 270 days in VBS than NVBS.
3. Distribution ratio of microbial group by PLFA profiles were different significantly due to soil characteristics, incubation temperature, and the type of organic matter.
4. Both G-/G+ and F/B ratios were decreased according to the increasing temperature gradually and those reduced more in NVBS than VBS.
5. Principal component analyis using PLFA profiles showed that microbial community structures were composed by soil type at 75 days, but by temperature at 270 days.
6. Urease and β-glucosidase activity were high in NVBS than VBS. Those were decreased gradually during the long-time incubation. Acid phosphatase activity increased according to the increasing temperature and that was higher in organic fertilizers than PMC and FWC.
7. Soil temperature was significantly correlated with acid phosphatase(r=0.728) in both soil. PLFA was significantly correlated with OM at r=0.634(p<0.001) in NVBS.
8. In conclusion, Soil microbial activities showed relative sensitivity and seasonal changes as affected by soil characteristics, temperature, and organic matter type and those were low in VBS.
Author(s)
좌재호
Issued Date
2011
Type
Dissertation
URI
http://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000005417
Alternative Author(s)
Jwa, Jae Ho
Affiliation
제주대학교
Department
대학원 농화학과
Advisor
현해남
Table Of Contents
Abbreviations
List of Figures
List of Tables
Summary

제 1 장 시비방법에 따른 감귤원토양의 시기별 미생물활성
ABSTRACT ............................ 1
Ⅰ. 서 론 ................................ 2
Ⅱ. 재료 및 방법 ................... 5
1. 시험 수행 방법 ........ 5
2. 토양 이화학성 분석 ................................... 7
3. 인지질 지방산(Phospholipid fatty acid, PLFA)분석 ..... 7
가. PLFA 지표 미생물 분포분석 .................... 8
나. PLFA 생물학적 지표(Biological index)비율 분석 ........ 8
4. 토양 미생물체량 ............ 9
가. Microbial biomass C ............................ 9
나. Microbial biomass N ................................... 10
5. 토양 미생물 호흡량(Soil basal respiration) ............ 10
6. 토양 효소활성 분석 ............................ 10
가. β-Glucosidase activity .............................. 11
나. Dehydrogenase activity .................................. 11
다. Urease activity ................................... 11
라. Acid phosphatase activity ........................... 12
7. 통계분석 .................... 12
Ⅲ. 결과 및 고찰 .................. 13
1. 시험토양의 화학성 ................. 13
2. 인지질 지방산(PLFA) ................................. 14
가. 인지질 지방산 총함량 시기별 변화 ................ 14
나. 인지질 지방산함량에 의한 미생물 분포 ................ 17
다. 인지질 지방산함량에 의한 생물학적 지표(Biological index)해석.. 20
3. 인지질 지방산함량에 의한 미생물군집의 시기별 변화 ..... 23
4. 토양 미생물체량 C와 N ............................ 26
5. 토양 미생물 호흡량과 대사지수 ................ 28
6. 토양효소 활성의 시기별 변화 ........................ 31
가. Dehydrogenase activity .................................. 31
나. β-Glucosidase activity ................................... 32
다. Urease activity ............ 34
라. Acid phosphatase activity ................................... 34
7. 토양 온도, 수분함량과 미생물활성 지표간의 상관관계 ... 37
Ⅳ. 요 약 ............................. 38
Ⅴ. 인용문헌 ........................... 39

제 2 장 감귤원토양의 세균군집구조와 다양성
ABSTRACT ........................... 46
Ⅰ. 서 론 .............................. 47
Ⅱ. 재료 및 방법 .................. 50
1. 시료채취 및 전처리 .......................... 50
2. 토양화학성 분석 ........ 50
3. 차세대염기서열(Pyrosequencing)분석 ....................... 51
4. 통계분석 ....................... 53
Ⅲ. 결과 및 고찰 .................. 55
1. 세균군집의 종풍부도와 다양성 지수 .................. 55
2. 분류군별 세균군집의 시기별 변화 ...................... 60
3. 토양화학성과 세균다양성간의 상관관계 ................ 67
Ⅳ. 요 약 ............................. 68
Ⅴ. 인용문헌 ........................... 69


제 3 장 유기물 항온배양이 질소무기화와 미생물활성에 미치는 영향
ABSTRACT ........................... 73
Ⅰ. 서 론 .............................. 74
Ⅱ. 재료 및 방법 .......................................................... 77
1. 시험 수행 방법 ........ 77
2. 이화학성분 분석 ........ 77
가. 토 양 ......................... 77
나. 유기물 ....................... 78
3. 인지질 지방산(Phospholipid fatty acid, PLFA)분석 ...... 79
4. 토양 효소활성 분석 ..................................... 79
5. 통계분석 ...................................................... 79
Ⅲ. 결과 및 고찰 ................ 80
1. 토양 pH, C/N ratio 변화 .......................... 80
2. 토양별 유기물의 질소 무기화 ........................... 84
3. 인지질 지방산(PLFA) ....................................... 88
가. 토양, 온도별 인지질 지방산 총함량 시기별 변화 ...... 88
나. 인지질 지방산함량에 의한 미생물 분포 ............ 90
다. 인지질 지방산함량에 의한 생물학적 지표(Biological index)해석.. 94

라. 인지질 지방산 함량에 의한 미생물군집의 시기별 변화... 96
4. 토양 효소활성 시기별 변화 ............................... 100

가. β-Glucosidase activity ................................ 100
나. Urease activity ............................................. 103

다. Acid phosphatase activity ................................... 105
5. 온도, 토양화학성과 미생물활성 지표간의 상관관계 ....... 107
Ⅳ. 요 약 ............................ 108
Ⅴ. 인용문헌 .......................... 109
Degree
Doctor
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
좌재호. (2011). 시비방법에 따른 감귤원 토양의 미생물 활성과 군집 다양성
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Graduate School of Industry > Environmental Biotechnology
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