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수산물 위생관리제도에 관한 연구

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It has been 16 years since the liberalization of marine product imports
in 1997. Since then, the domestic marine product market has
encountered drastic changes due to an increase of marine products
import. The domestic fisheries industry including fish farming industry
suffered from difficulties in management because of imported marine
products traded in market in lower prices. Also, while free trade
became the rule of international trade, the Korean government strived
to create appropriate policies and to establish the market order for
increasing competitiveness of domestic fisheries industry.
It is important to evaluate the marine products management system of
Korea which has been a measure to respond to changes, while
searching for solutions to improve the system. Based upon this
background, this research aims to figure out solutions to improve the
marine products import management system of Korea in line with the
international norm.
For contributing to establish the market order, this research deals with
related systems of developed countries and some changes in the
international norm. As improvement measures, it suggests to reinforce international quarantine for edible marine products, to develop
distinction technology for place of origin and to activate the national
marine products sanitation agreement system, while recommending legal
reform solutions which would facilitate mentioned improvement
The goals of public policy regarding marine products import are to be
focused on marine resource management, environment protection,
eco-system protection and market order reinforcement. Pursuing these
goals has a wide range of beneficiaries, since not only domestic
producers but also customers would take advantages of the public
policies. Several imported marine products management systems of
Japan, the U.S., and EU which are dealt with in this research aim for
food sanitation, food safety and customer projection. However, it has
been recognized that these systems were used to protect domestic
producers indirectly.
The safety and sanitation management of marine products is dealt with
not only by Sanitary and Phtosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement but
also by the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Similar
issues are also discussed over by WTO, FAO and OECD. Especially,
WTO and FAO founded Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) in 1962
which is in charge of international marine products quarantine. The
international organizations mentioned above establish international
standards on the premise that quarantine measures should not become
a trade barrier in international food trade.
Also, individual countries tend to reinforce the sanitation criteria of
imported marine products. They have adopted new sanitation
management systems for marine products safety. For example,
developed countries such as the U.S. and Japan conducted fishery area
management to imported marine products from abroad. In addition, they required exporters to satisfy their own sanitation criteria such as
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System (HACCP) and Good
Manufacturing Practice (GMP).
The purpose of the WTO agreement on SPS is to prevent trade
distortion, by changing quarantine measures into a consistent
international norm, since the measures have been adopted by individual
countries making an arbitrary decision for protesting against to free
trade. The SPS agreement consists of the preamble, 14 articles in the
body and 3 appendices. 14 articles and 46 clauses in the body contain
consistency with international norms, the principle of equivalence, the
principle of transparency, risk estimation and maintenance of the
appropriate protection level. 3 appendices include definitions, sanitation
management & supervision, the transparency of sanitation control and
approval procedures.
Codex has been considered as the international standard of food safety
ever since the conference for founding Codex Alimentarius Commission
(CAC) in 1962 which WTO and WHO jointly organized. Codex serves 4
different functions. First, Codex establishes international standards of
traded food. Second, it defines the standard of food additives usage
such as usage object and usage dose. Third, it sets criteria of pollutant
control regarding remain agricultural pesticides, veterinary medicines,
heavy metal and other pollutants. Lastly, it offers a task performance
function for food safety and trade. Codex provides 28 different
standards concerning marine products for the purpose of enhancing
their food safety. The standards reflect characteristics of each marine
product and provide detailed criteria for sanitation management.
Individual countries have implemented sanitation management policies
for marine products to increase competitiveness of exported marine
products and to provide their own citizens with high quality marine products as the global marine products market is getting liberalized. To
the contrary, the sanitation management system of marine products
from the Korean government distributes authority across multiple
bodies. Also, it is not systematical enough to connect production to
consumption, which makes it vulnerable to changes.
Currently, marine products import has been increasing due to a gradual
increase of marine products demand and a decrease of domestic supply.
Therefore, it is important to review and reform existing facilities and
systems for marine products sanitation management, to prepare for
times imported marine products account for vast amount of domestic
supply. Now is the time that issues concerning safety and sanitation
management of marine product take priority in marine administration.
Although the traceability system for marine products has been
operated, only the limited number of consumers is utilizing it due to
the lack of efficient promotion. There are even a lot more customers
who are not aware of the system than those who are. The financial aid
from the government is not enough to set up devices across the
country and to promote the system in media. In addition, the efficiency
of the system seems to be low given that the government only tried to
increase the number of registered firms in the system, rather than
focusing on 'food safety', the original purpose.
Individual efforts of the government organizations, business and
customers in improving the current system have their own limitation as
food sanitation management issues are in a wide range of fields.
Therefore, to efficiently enhance marine products safety, the central
government has to provide sanitation management solutions which are
systematical and consistent in a long term.
대학원 법학과
Awarded Date
2015. 2
Table Of Contents
제 1 장 서론 1
제 1 절 연구의 필요성과 목적 1
제 2 절 연구범위와 방법 2
제 2 장 우리나라 수산물 위생관리제도의 현황과 과제 4
제 1 절 서 4
제 2 절 식품위생관련 법령 5
1. 식품안전기본법 5
2. 식품위생법 6
3. 농수산물품질관리법 9
4. 수산물 HACCP제도 도입과 운영 23
제 3 절 수산물 위생관리의 문제점과 과제 30
1. 서 30
2. SPS 협정 이행을 위한 구체적 실행계획 수립 및 대응 미흡 32
3. 수산물의 종합적인 위생관리장치의 부재 35
4. 부처 간 협조 체제 미 확립 36
5. 수산물 위해물질 사전 점검 체계 미비 38
6. 수입 수산물 검사 · 검역 체제상의 비효율 41
7. 새로운 위생관리 장치의 도입 · 확산 미흡 41
8. 수산물 HACCP 제도 시행의 어려움 42
제 3 장 수산물 위생관련 국제적 논의와 위생 및 식물위생 조치의 적용에 관한 협정(SPS) 44
제 1 절 서 44
제 2 절 수산물 위생 관련 국제기구의 논의 45
1. FAO 45
2. 국제식품규격위원회(Codex Alimentarius Commission : CAC) 46
3. APEC 47
제 3 절 위생 및 식물위생 조치의 적용에 관한 협정(SPS) 48
1. SPS 협정의 등장 배경 48
2. SPS 협정의 구성 49
3. SPS 협정 주요내용 49
4. SPS 위원회 61
5. 협의 및 분쟁해결 64
제 4 절 SPS 협정과 다른 협정과의 관계 65
1. SPS 협정과 TBT 협정과의 관계 65
2. SPS 협정과 GATT 1994와의 관계 67
제 5 절 위해성평가에 대한 SPS 협정과 CAC의 내용 67
1. 서 67
2. SPS 협정의 내용 68
3. CAC의 내용 70
제 6 절 위해성 평가 관련 통상 분쟁사례 분석 72
1. 서 72
2. Australia - Salmons사건 73
제 7 절 일본산 수산물 수입 금지조치와 위해성 평가의 문제 79
1. 서 79
2. 대응방안 81
제 4 장 주요국가의 수산물 위생관리제도 84
제 1 절 일본의 수산물 위생관리제도 84
1. 서 84
2. 관련법령 85
3. 기타 식품 안전성 확보를 위한 제도 88
제 2 절 중국 89
1. 서 89
2. 수출 수산물 품질 관리법 89
3. 중국 수산물 수입 국가의 동향 91
제 3 절 미국 92
1. 서 93
2. 수산식품에 대한 HACCP 의무시행 94
3. 식품표시제도 95
4. 안전성 확보를 위한 제도 95
제 4 절 EU 96
1. 서 97
2. 수산식품의 위생 관련조직과 법령 98
3. HACCP 적용의무화 100
4. 수산물 검사 100
제 5 장 수산물 위생관리제도의 개선방안 102
제 1 절 수산물 시장개방 대응방안 102
1. 수산물의 위생관리정책의 기본 방향 및 설정 102
2. SPS 협정 이행 및 적극적 대응 109
3. 검역 시스템의 효율화 109
4. 위험물질의 모니터링 강화와 전문 인력양성 110
5. 안전성이 확보된 수산물을 위한 통합적인 접근방법 113
6. 수산물 원산지 위장 방지 114
7. 장 · 단기적 수산물 종합 위생관리 계획의 수립 116
제 2 절 수산물 안전성 확보를 위한 방안 118
1. 새로운 위생관리제도의 도입 및 활성화 방안 118
2. 이력추적제도의 활성화 121
3. 수산물 안전성 관리제도의 및 연계성 강화 122
4. 수산물 안전성 확보를 위한 효율적인 운영 방안 125
5. 식품위해요소중점관리기준과 개선 방안 130
제 6 장 결론 131
참고문헌 136
제주대학교 대학원
신정식. (2014). 수산물 위생관리제도에 관한 연구
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