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Nutritional, physiological and immunological studies of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed marine protein hydrolysates

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Abstract
Marine protein hydrolysates are potential feed ingredients that are used in aquaculture
feeds mainly as functional supplements, attractants and palatability enhancers. The use of
protein hydrolysates produced by pre-processing the raw material with hydrolytic enzymes in
diets has shown to improve growth and feed utilization. Also, there have been reports on
biologically active peptides with immunostimulant and antibacterial properties. Recently,
dietary supplementation of some protein hydrolysates has gained a huge interest of aquafeed
nutritionists because of the functional properties and potential benefits of the hydrolysates.
However, there is limited information on their nutritional value as potential dietary
ingredients in diets for olive flounder and red sea bream which are important marine finfish
species cultured in Korea. Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to determine the
insights of the utilization of the different protein hydrolysates, including krill, shrimp, tilapia
and tuna hydrolysates, in diets for both fish species by examining overall performance and
health status of the fish.
In the first feeding trial, the results indicated that dietary supplementation of the
protein hydrolystes particularly krill hydrolysate, even in high fish meal (FM) diet is a
efficient strategy to improve growth performance, feed utilization, innate immunity and
disease resistance of juvenile olive flounder.
Based on the results obtained from the second and third experiments, 50% of FM
protein could be substituted by soy protein concentrate (SPC) with dietary supplementation of
the protein hydrolysates, without any adverse impact on juvenile olive flounder and red sea
bream growth performance and health/welfare condition, when compared to the fish fed the
high FM diet. These findings also demonstrated that dietary inclusion of the tested protein
hydrolysates, improved the innate immune responses of fish which is most probably
responsible for the enhanced disease resistance of fish against bacterial infection caused by E.
tarda, which was depressed in fish fed the low FM diet. Moreover, these results suggested
that krill hydrolysate, apparently, is the most effective dietary supplement for juvenile olive
flounder while shrimp hydrolysate seemed to be the best choice for juvenile red sea bream.
In view of finding an appropriate inclusion level for the hydrolysate products that
showed the best results in terms of growth performance, a study was conducted to verify the
effects of different dietary levels of shrimp and tilapia hydrolysates in low FM diet at thelevels of 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% on growth performance, feed utilization, intestine histology,
digestibility, innate immunity and disease resistance against Edwardsiella tarda for olive
flounder. The results showed that the highest growth performance and feed utilization
efficiency were observed in fish fed 4.5% dietary shrimp hydrolysate which were comparable
to those of the high FM group. Moreover, the significant improvement of liver IGF-I mRNA
expression by increment of dietary shrimp hydrolysate level in this study further confirmed
that supplementation of appropriate level of shrimp hydrolysate in diets for olive flounder
would enhance IGF-I production, which is fundamentally involved in growth regulation. In
contrast, fish fed the highest tilapia hydrolysate level exhibited lower growth performance
and feed utilization efficiency than other inclusion levels, even though the difference was not
significant. Nevertheless, it was found that tilapia hydrolysate can induce the innate immune
response causing enhanced disease resistance.
In the last study, two feeding trials were carried out for the two species to investigate
the effects of dietary supplementation of krill and tuna hydrolysates on growth performance,
feed utilization, digestibility, innate immunity and disease resistance against E. tarda. In both
experiments a basal FM-based diet was regarded as a control and two other diets were
prepared by top-coating 2% of the tested hydrolysates. Results of this study indicated that
supplementation of 2% krill hydrolysate in diets for red sea bream and olive flounder can
enhance growth performances and feed efficiency, and that non-specific immune response
can be positively affected by both hydrolysates.
Author(s)
Sanaz Khosravi Vanegh Sofla
Issued Date
2015
Awarded Date
2015. 8
Type
Dissertation
URI
http://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000007269
Department
대학원 해양생명과학과
Table Of Contents
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Fish meal as ingredient in aquafeed 2
1.2. Soybean as an alternative protein source 2
1.3. Marine by-products 3
1.4. Protein hydrolysate 4
1.4.1. Production of protein hydrolysate 4
1.4.2. Properties of protein hydrolysate 4
1.4.3. Potential applications of protein hydrolysates in aquafeed 5
1.5. Chapter justification 5
2. Effect of dietary hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
(Aquacult. Nutr. 2015. 21, 321-331) 8
Abstract 9
Introduction 9
Material and Methods 10
Results 14
Discussion 15
3. Effect of dietary protein hydrolysate inclusion on growth performance, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile olive flounder(Paralichthys olivaceus) fed high plant protein diets 28
Abstract 29
Introduction 29
Material and Methods 31
Results 35
Discussion 36
4. Effects of protein hydrolysate supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major(Fish Shellfish Immun. 45: 858-868) 51
Abstract 52
Introduction 52
Material and Methods 54
Results 58
Discussion 59
5. Effects of different dietary levels of protein hydrolysates on growth, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and resistance to Edwardsiella tarda in juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) 75
Abstract 76
Introduction 77
Material and Methods 78
Results 83
Discussion 84
6. Dietary supplementation of marine protein hydrolysates in fish-meal based diets for red sea bream (Pagrus major) and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) (Aquaculture, 2015. 435, 371–376) 98
Abstract 99
Introduction 99
Material and Methods 100
Results 103
Discussion 104
Conclusion 113
List of References 116
Degree
Doctor
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
Sanaz Khosravi Vanegh Sofla. (2015). Nutritional, physiological and immunological studies of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed marine protein hydrolysates
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General Graduate School > Marine Life Sciences
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