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조선전기 貂皮 수요층의 확대와 밀무역 성행

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Alternative Title
Expansion of Demand for and Prevalence of Smuggling of Martin fur in the Early Joseon Dynasty
Abstract
In the Joseon dynasty, marten fur(貂皮) was exclusively used for Royal family as rare fur. That was largely provided for king's use(御用) and also used as material of official uniform(冠服) for only high officials above the 3rd rank Dangsanggwan(正3品 堂上官). The central government used marten fur as tribute(朝貢), return gift(回贈) and Royal gift(下賜) to maintain a stable relationship with China and to carry out the function of praise and reward.
Government collected marten fur by imposing a tribute(貢納) in it. This marten fur was a tribute whose quantity had to be stably secured as much as national demand. However, the quantity of marten fur collected in Pyongan province and Hamgyong province fell far short of national demand, and people had to pay tributes in fur acquired through smuggling with Jurchen(女眞) people.
As martin fur clothes were in fashion among women from officials' family and noble women around the late 15th century to the 16th century, its demand started to increase. The reason why the upper class increasingly wore martin fur clothes was mainly due to the increases in the aesthetic value of martin fur and the perception thereof as prestige ornamentation, and the climate of the Little Ice Age of the 16th century. Jurchen people, who played a role of supplier, could meet the Joseon dynasty's demand for martin fur, and also wealthy merchants(富商大賈), who led barter trade at that time, facilitated the expansion of demand for martin fur through active commercial activities.
The contemporary realities of tributes and expansion of demand facilitated smuggling(密貿易) of martin fur(貂皮) with Jurchen(女眞) people. As a result, the value of martin fur increased so much that horses, cattle or metallic material could be bartered for martin fur.
Jurchen gained economic and military benefits through smuggling of martin fur. In contrast, in Joseon, important resources flowed out, and various evils and vices occurred, which contributed to Jurchen's growth.
Joseon government implemented reduction and exemption policies about tributes in martin fur several times to stamp out smuggling it, or released the decree prohibiting wearing martin fur clothes to prevent the expansion of its demand. Further, Joseon government took responsive measures by strictly implementing the decree prohibiting smuggling of martin fur. This repeated implementation of responsive measures shows that complete prohibition of smuggling martin fur was not actually implemented.
Smuggling of martin fur resulted from the limitation of tribute system and the increase in domestic demand for martin fur. Meanwhile, although the government implemented 'the policy of encouraging agriculture and suppressing commerce(務本抑末策)' and controlled commerce, smuggling of martin fur triggered promotion of product distribution. Merchants' commercial activities show a socioeconomic change that distribution channels for martin fur was expanding into private trading area at that time. These facts formed the background of Uniform Land Tax Law (Daedongbeop)(大同法), accelerated commercial development in the late years of the Joseon dynasty, and maybe laid the groundwork for distribution economy.
Author(s)
김미형
Issued Date
2015
Awarded Date
2016. 2
Type
Dissertation
URI
http://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000007477
Alternative Author(s)
Kim, Mi-Hyoung
Department
대학원 사학과
Advisor
김동전
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 서론 1
1. 연구목적 및 배경 1
2. 연구성과 검토 및 연구방법 3

Ⅱ. 中央政府의 貂皮 需要와 活用 6
1. 초피의 용도와 기능 6
2. 초피 활용과 제작 11

Ⅲ. 貂皮 需要層의 擴大와 密貿易 18
1. 초피 생산지와 공납실상 18
2. 수요층 확대와 초피 공급의 한계 26
3. 女眞과의 초피 밀무역 33

Ⅳ. 貂皮 密貿易의 弊端과 對策 39
1. 초피 밀무역의 폐단 39
2. 정부의 대응책과 한계 44

Ⅴ. 결론 54

참고문헌 57
Degree
Master
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
김미형. (2015). 조선전기 貂皮 수요층의 확대와 밀무역 성행
Appears in Collections:
General Graduate School > History
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