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最近 濟州地域에서 觀測된 極甚한 黃砂 事例 特性分析 및 數値模擬

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Alternative Title
Characteristic analysis and numerical simulation of the severe Asian dust event observed in Jeju in recent years
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to analyze the generation and transport
process of Asian dust and the cause of high concentration PM10 appeared in
Jeju Island with the use of the three-dimensional numerical modeling (WRF
and CMAQ) in relation to the episode day (March 20, 2010) of the most
severe Asian dust in the Korean peninsula in recent years. In regard to the
characteristics of research episode day, PM10 concentration started increasing
rapidly from 7 PM on March 20 (increased by approximately 700 to 2,000 ㎍
/m3). The maximum concentration (approximately 2,500 to 3,000 ㎍/m3) was
reached around 8 and 9 PM. The concentration then started falling gradually. According to the weather chart and satellite image, the sand dust appeared in
the desert located at the boundary between Tuva Republic and Mongolia and
Gobi Desert around noon on March 18 and noon on March 19, respectively.
However, the weather chart showed that the sand dust, which had appeared
around noon on March 18, soon disappeared, whereas the satellite image
continuously showed the signal of Asian dust. This difference implies that the
sand dust generated from Gobi Desert around noon on March 19 was not the
only cause of Asian dust on the episode day. That is to say, the sand dust,
which appeared at noon on March 18, might influence Korea directly or
indirectly. In addition, it generally takes approximately 2 or 3 days for Asian
dust to arrive to Korea from Gobi Desert. However, it took only about 1 to 2
days in the case of research episode day. This indicates that Asian dust
enters Korea at a very fast pace.
The numerical simulation on Asian dust was conducted through CMAQ
modeling. The emission quantity of Asian dust was calculated in consideration
of the critical friction velocity, vegetation indices and attenuation factors. In
regard to the emission quantity of Asian dust, the emission appeared at the
time and location that were similar to that of the weather chart and satellite
image. The emission quantity of PM10, which appeared in the Chinese
industrial complex, was approximately 10 times lower than Asian dust.
Therefore, it is assumed that only Asian dust made a significant impact on
the high concentration of observed PM10. As a result of the analysis on the
spatial distribution and wind field of Asian dust, high concentration Asian
dust appeared in the desert located at the boundary between Tuva Republic
and Mongolia around 6 PM on March 18. It then moved southeast along the
wind field. Since then, Asian dust was transported up to the vicinity of Gobi
Desert around noon on March 19. In the picture taken at 6 PM, the
concentration of Asian dust transported to Gobi Desert became high again.
Similarly to the result of the satellite image analysis, the result of the picture taken at 6 PM implies the possibility that the concentration of Asian dust was
again increased because the sand dust of Gobi Desert floated due to the
strong wind while Asian dust generated on March 18 was being transported.
It then entered Korea around 8 PM on March 20 along the wind. Its
concentration was approximately 600 to 3,000 ㎍/m3. That is, its concentration
was almost identical to the highest observed concentration of PM10 in Jeju
island. It then exited gradually toward Japan. In regard to the horizontal field
in Jeju Island, the time when the PM10 concentration increased and the
increased concentration of PM10, which were derived from the observed values
of Jeju island, were almost identical. Also, the central area of Asian dust was
divided when it passed by Jeju island. This is probably because Halla
Mountain, which is located at the center of Jeju island, blocked Asian dust.
Similarly to the horizontal field for each time slot, the vertical cross-section
analysis shows in detail how Asian dust floats and sinks while entering Jeju
island. Overall, Asian dust is transported at an altitude of approximately 5 to
8 km, which is the upper part of the troposphere. Some portion of Asian
dust is transported at an altitude of higher than 8 km. This fact implies that
a very strong cyclone might contribute to the transport of Asian dust. As a
result of the comparative analysis on the results of CMAQ model and the
observed values, there was almost no difference in the time when PM10
concentration increased. Overall, the observed values tended to be smaller
than the results of CMAQ model. For the quantitative analysis, the statistical
analysis was conducted in this study. In the case of RMSE, it reached even
190 to 500 ㎍/m3. In contrast, the model showed a low value of PM10
because MB represents a negative value at all the places. IOA shows a high
value of approximately 0.7 to 0.9 in all the places with the exception of
Gwangju. Therefore, it is concluded that the results of CMAQ model are at
reasonable levels for reproducing Asian dust.
The Asian dust analysis based on the above-mentioned numerical simulation complements the limitations of synoptic meteorology, such as weather chart.
In particular, this analysis enables us to better understand Asian dust in
terms of how it is generated and transported from its origin, what altitude it
travels at and why its concentration increases. In general, a majority of Asian
dust, which come to Korea, are originated Gobi Desert, Inner Mongolia and
yellow earth plateau. Hence, it is necessary to consider not only the effects of
the aforementioned regions but also the effects resulting from many unknown
deserts located in the region where the windward of westerlies. It is required
to analyze the generation process of Asian dust and the causes of high
concentration PM10 more accurately through various numerical simulation
analyses on those episode days of high concentration Asian dust, which is
different from Korea.
Author(s)
김석우
Issued Date
2015
Awarded Date
2016. 2
Type
Dissertation
URI
http://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000007527
Alternative Author(s)
Kim, Sukwoo
Department
대학원 지구해양과학과
Advisor
송상근
Table Of Contents
List of Tables ⅲ
List of Figures ⅳ
제 1 장 서 론 1
1.1. 연구배경 1
1.2. 연구목적 3
제 2 장 재료 및 방법 4
2.1. 자료 및 연구방법 4
2.2. 모델 구성 5
2.2.1. 기상모델 5
2.2.2. 대기질모델 9
제 3 장 결과 및 고찰 16
3.1. 황사사례일 특성 분석 16
3.2. 기상모델 평가 25
3.3. 황사 및 PM10 배출량의 시공간 분포 특성 28
3.4. 황사농도 시공간 분포 특성 32
3.4.1. 수평분포 분석 32
3.4.2. 연직단면도 분석 39
3.4.3. 황사모델 결과와 관측값 비교 48
제 4 장 요약 및 결론 53
참 고 문 헌 56
Abstract 62
부 록 66
Degree
Master
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
김석우. (2015). 最近 濟州地域에서 觀測된 極甚한 黃砂 事例 特性分析 및 數値模擬
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