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제주4·3사건과 주민의 동굴 피신생활

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Alternative Title
A Study on the Residents' Life in Cave Refuges during the Jeju 4·3 Incident
Abstract
This paper is a study on the experiences of Jeju residents in cave refuges
during the Jeju 4‧3 incident, one of the most painful sources of memories for
Jeju citizens. Jeju Island has always been easily differentiable from mainland
Korea, and not only due to its distance from the capital and peculiar culture,
but also due to the tendency of the local population to resist authority.
Indeed, throughout history Jeju has consistently shown signs of resistance
and protest towards the central government. The Jeju 4‧3 incident was the
largest amongst these events, resulting in the deaths of thousands of innocent
Jeju residents. According to official investigative reports, the incident began
with the national independence day protest on March 1, 1947, when police
shot into crowds of protestors, thereby increasing an already tense political
atmosphere in Jeju. The armed uprising on April 3, 1948 triggered a series of
conflicts between guerrilla forces of the Jeju branch of the Labour Party and
the police and army search teams. This conflict resulted in the deaths of
thousands of civilians. The incident ceased on September 21, 1954 with the
reopening of the banned areas of Mt. Halla.
The most severe period of the massacre was during the so-called scorched
earth operations from October 1948 to March 1949. These operations of the
search teams aimed to eliminate the base of the guerrilla forces established in
the mid-mountainous territories and cut their connections to nearby civilian
villages. The authorities' plan was to send all civilians from these territories
to seaside villages. Many of the villagers, however, did not relocate to the
designated areas, but rather took refuge in nearby forests and caves. They
hid in those places because they feared the police and army, who were killing
without distinction anyone with suspected connections to the Labour Party or
any of the incidents.
These refuge caves were not just simple hideaways; some of them served
as temporary homes for families or even entire villages. In this paper I
examine three villages: Sehwa, Dongkwang, and Seonheul. The caves in these
three villages show commonalities though each has distinguishing
characteristics. Darangsi cave in Sehwa village hosted approximately 20
civilians from nearby Jongdal and Hado villages. Civilians hid in that cave for
almost a month after their villages were repeatedly attacked by guerrillas and
the authority forces, despite being seaside villages. In the case of Dongkwang
village, around 120 people hid for two months in a cave called Keunneolgwe
after their village (located in the mid-mountainous area) was burned down by
the army. Both in Darangshi and Keunneolgwe caves the residents tried to
maintain their old lifestyle by dividing the space according to their villages or
houses. People from different villages would live in separate places inside the
cave, and even spaces for kitchens or bathrooms were designated. These
refuge caves were usually hard to find and even harder to enter due to their
narrow entrances. Once inside, however, the space widened, allowing many
people to take refuge. The caves in Seonheul have similar features, but
because of their rapid discovery they were used only as short-term refuges.
Seonheul village was also burned down and its residents were forced to hide
in four of the nearby caves. According to survivors, one of them hosted
around 200 residents, before being discovered after only a few days of refuge.
Most caves were discovered by the police or army and many refugees, who
were mostly civilians, were killed.
The truth about these caves and the massacres related to them had been
silenced for decades as the government labeled the incident as a communist
uprising. However, along with the start of the democratization movement in
the 1980s, a movement for the investigation of the truth of these incidents
also started. The caves became important symbols of the incident as they
played an important role in reinterpreting these events from the viewpoint of
ordinary Jeju civilians. These caves allow for the ideological conflict to be
put aside and have became symbols of the hardships endured by individuals
during the incident. In 1992 the first of the caves was discovered, the
Darangsi cave in Sehwa village. It was a major discovery as the remains of
11 residents who died of asphyxiation after being suffocated in the cave by
the army were found. This was the first piece of evidence concerning the
brutality used by authorities during the incident and it also became the first
report of its nature to be reported nationwide. Despite the fact that the cave
itself was blocked off and the remains of the victims were hurriedly
cremated, local reporters and scholars continued researching it. Articles and
documentaries were made about Darangsi and other caves as survivors began
discussing these events after many decades of silence. It was not until the
premier of Jiseul in 2013, however, that these events became known
nationwide. Jisuel is a black and white movie about the 4‧3 incident that
focuses on the history of events in Dongkwang village and the Keunneolgwe
cave. This movie has played an important role in spreading the truth and
sharing local memory about the incident in recent years. Currently, in 2016,
the Education Office of Jeju has made an educational short movie about the
incident focusing on Darangsi, which finally shows the official acceptance of
the caves and local memories. The Jeju 4‧3 incident is still considered
ongoing, as many of its issues remain unsolved. However the memories of
ordinary people, just like the discovery of these caves, are the keys to
achieving reconciliation and coexistence, which is considered to be the aim of
Jeju 4‧3 incident research in the scholarly world.
Author(s)
이그나즈 아니타
Issued Date
2016
Awarded Date
2016. 8
Type
Dissertation
URI
http://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000007778
Alternative Author(s)
Ignacz, Anita
Department
대학원 한국학협동과정
Advisor
김동전
Table Of Contents
Abstract iii
Ⅰ. 서론 1
1. 연구의 목적 1
2. 선행연구 3
3. 연구의 대상과 방법 5
Ⅱ. 제주43사건의 배경과 전개과정 8
1. 사건의 배경 8
2. 31절 시위사건과 43 10
3. 초토화작전과 그 후의 상황 14
Ⅲ. 제주43사건 은신처 동굴 실태와 피신생활 20
1. 제주43사건 은신처 동굴 실태 21
2. 세화리 마을 다랑쉬굴 피신생활 26
3. 동광리 마을 초토화와 큰넓궤 동굴 피신생활 34
4. 선흘리 마을 동굴 피신생활 40
Ⅳ. 제주43사건 은신처 동굴과 기억의 공간 46
1. 제주43유적과 은신처 동굴 46
2. 기억의 공간으로서 은신처 동굴의 활용 49
Ⅴ. 결론 64
참고문헌 68
72
Degree
Master
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
이그나즈 아니타. (2016). 제주4·3사건과 주민의 동굴 피신생활
Appears in Collections:
Interdisciplinary Programs > Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Program in Koreanology
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