중국인 학습자를 위한 선어말어미 '-겠-', '-더-'에 관한 연구
- Alternative Title
- A Study on Prefinal Endings, '-Get(겠)-' and '-Deo(더)-' for Chinese Learners
- The role of grammatical training of Korean is very important in order to enhance Korean language ability of Korean learners of foreigners. It is not easy to understand Korean language's 'ending system' because it is very complicated and various. Especially for Chinese learners, it could be more difficult. Chinese language does not have the developed ending system like Korean language because it is the isolating language. Korean language's endings are divided into final endings and prefinal endings according to their positions. And among them, prefinal endings, '-Get (겠)-' and '-Deo (더)-' tend to be very often used in the daily life of Korea. Furthermore, learners of foreigners have difficulties in learning them and there are a lot of errors in them because they have the complicated characteristics in tense, aspect, and mood categories. This study first restricted the Korean language's prefinal endings, '-Get-' and '-Deo-' syntactically focusing on these points, reviewed them accordingly, and suggested efficient teaching and learning plans.
Chapter 2 introduced the meaning of prefinal endings, the concept and category of syntactic constraints, and syntactic constraints of the prefinal endings as the theoretical background of the study and described teaching methods of the Korean language. The prefinal endings are shown between the stem and final ending of predicates. Final endings mean grammatical morpheme shown in the longest distance from the stem of predicates when they are utilized, while prefinal endings means grammatical morpheme shown before final endings by considering their appearance positions.
Syntactic constraints can be constraints that must just create grammatical sentences and prevent ungrammatical sentences. 'Syntactic constraints of prefinal endings' that will be handled in this paper means the phenomenon that prefinal endings are static when being applied to sentences and the endings which cannot be matched with each other must not be applied together. Korean language education are mainly teaching methods of translating traditional grammar and audiolingual teaching methods. By 1980, various foreign teaching methods began to be known. In 1980s, systemic reaction and silent way teaching method were presented. And in 1990s, communication-centered teaching methods were introduced. Studies on grammar education and task-centered teaching methods of speaking by utilizing communication teaching methods were conducted by Lee, Hae-yeong (1998) and Hyeon, Yun-ho (2001). 5 level teaching models that are commonly handled here are examined.
Chapter 3 discussed syntactic constraints of prefinal endings, '-Get-' and '-Deo-'. For the prefinal ending, '-Get-', syntactic constraints shown according to the meanings of 'guess', 'will', and 'possibility and ability' and 'selective constraints aspect' with connective endings were analyzed. Examining person constraints of the prefinal ending, '-Get'' shown according to sentence types, subjects of the first person are constrained in case that predicates show the meanings of 'guess' as verbs in declarative sentences, but constraints of subjects of the first person is solved when verbs, the predicates, have no arbitrariness or are expressed as the past. When '-Get-' is used as the meaning of 'will', subjects of the second and third persons are constrained. It's because speakers cannot decide other persons' will except the speakers themselves. On the other hand, persons are not constrained when '-Get-' shows the meanings of 'possibility and ability'. In interrogative sentences, the 2nd person is constrained when predicates shows the meanings of 'guess' as verbs. At this moment, it shows the meaning of 'will', not 'guess', because listeners themselves are the main agents of behaviors. The 1st and 3rd persons are constrained when '-Get-' shows the meaning of 'will'. This is because listeners cannot decide other persons' will except themselves. Persons are not constrained when '-Get-' shows the meaning of 'possibility and ability'. Examining if predicates are constrained, predicates are not constrained when '-Get-' shows the meaning of 'guess'. Generally, '-Get-' applies to verbs only when it represents 'will.' This is because adjectives and 'substantive + Ida (이다)' cannot make speakers active agents. However, '-Get-' shows the meaning of 'will' if adjectives and 'substantive + Ida ' can express speakers' self-controlling power. '-Get-' applies to verbs only when it shows the meaning of 'possibility and ability.' This is because adjectives and 'substantive + Ida ' cannot have activity. Examining if the tense is constrained, the tense is not constrained when '-Get-' shows the meaning of 'guess'. However, the past tense is constrained when '-Get-' shows the meaning of 'will'. This is because 'will' of the past things cannot be expressed as it expresses psychological attitudes of the main agents of judging the things or behaviors that do not happen yet and could take place in the future. However, the past things can represent will of the future at that time in quotations. Usually, '-Get-' applies to the present tense when it shows the meaning of 'possibility and ability' and the past and future tense is constrained. As speakers' psychological attitudes about facts of the past or the future are shown, '-Get-' does not show the meaning of 'possibility and ability' but 'guess' of the past or the future. Examining sentence types of '-Get-', proposative and imperative sentences are constrained. This is because proposative and imperative sentences cannot be matched with '-Get-' that shows the meaning of 'guess', 'will', and 'possibility and ability' as they ask other persons to behave. When '-Get-' shows the meaning of 'will', exclamatory sentences are constrained. This is because expressions of 'will' cannot be matched with exclamatory sentences because speakers show their strong feelings in them. When '-Get-' is used with connective endings, there are the cases of being constrained. The connective endings that can or is okay not to be connected to '-Get-' include -Go (고) and -(Eu(으))Myeo (며)(List).' The connective endings that can have suitable sentences when they must be connected to '-Get-' include '-Eu(으)na(나), -Jiman (지만), -Neundae (는데) / -Eu(으), and ndae (ㄴ데)' used as the meanings of 'confrontation and contrast' and '-Eu(으)ni니, -Eu(으)nikka(니까), and -Eu(으)meuro(므로)' done as the meanings of 'reason and causes.' The rest connective endings that cannot be connected to '-Get-' include '-Eu(으)Myeonseo(면서), -Myeo(며), -Ja(자), -Jamaja(자마자)', used as the meaning of 'simultaneous' and '-Go(고), -Aseo(아서)/Eoseo(어서)' done as the meanings of 'chronological sequence', and '-Daga(다가)' done as the meaning of 'change'.
'-Deoni(더니)', the connective ending of '-Deo(더)-', the prefinal ending, was separated from '-Deoni(더니)(Causes and contrast)' and '-Eotdeoni(었더니)(Causes and discovery)' and syntactic constraints shown in them was analyzed. For '-Deora (더라)', the final ending, syntactic constrains according to meanings ('Remembrance and report' and 'expression of feelings', and 'talking to oneself') was analyzed.
For '-Deon(던)^1', the article-type ending, constraints of preceding verb types and the meanings of '-Deon(던)^1' and '-Eotdeon(었던)' were analyzed. First, examining person constraints, For '-Deoni(더니)^1(Causes)', the connective ending, the 1st person is constrained, but '-Deoni(더니)^2(Contrast)', persons are not constrained. For '-Eotdeoni(었더니)^1(Causes)' and '-Eotdeoni(었더니)^2(Discovery)', the 2nd and 3rd persons are constrained. Generally, for '-Deora (더라)^1 (Remembrance and reporting)', the final ending, the 1st person is constrained. However, when speakers make the other parties know their things newly, that is, inform them of them by objectifying them, the 1st person is possible. For '-Deora (더라)^2(Expression of feelings)', the 2nd and
3rd persons are constrained. This is because speakers themselves do not know other persons' psychology, mood, or feelings. However, there the cases that speakers can recognize other persons' feelings. At this moment, subject constraints of the 3rd person is solved. For '-Deora (더라)^3(Talking to oneself)', the person is not constrained. Examining predicate constraints, for '-Deoni(더니)^1(Causes)' and '-Deoni(더니)^2(Contrast)', predicates of antecedent clauses are not constrained. For '-Eotdeoni(었더니)^1(Causes)' and '-Eotdeoni(었더니)^2(Discovery)', 'Adjectives' and 'substantives+Ida'-typed predicates are constrained. For '-Deora^1(Remembrance and report'), the final ending, predicates are not constrained. However, '-Deora^2(Expression of feelings)' cannot be matched with verbs or 'substantives+Ida'. For '-Deora^3(Talking to oneself)', predicates are not constrained. Examining if tenses are constrained, for '-Deoni^1(Causes)', '-Deoni^2(Contrast)', and '-Eotdeoni^1(Causes)', the connective endings, the tense is not constrained. However, for '-Eotdeoni^2(Discovery)', there can be the future tense in following clauses. Because following clauses are facts of the future or the facts that speakers already get to know, they become ungrammatical sentences when the future sentence is used. For '-Deora', the final ending, the speech time is 'the present', the recognition time is 'the past', and the accident time can be the past, the present, and the future. However, For '-Deora^2 (Expression of feelings)', speakers' psychology just applies to the past tense because they always know it. By sentence type, '-Deo-' is not used in proposative and imperative sentences irrespective of grammar details. '-Deora', the final ending, is used in the form of '-Deonya(더냐)' and '-Deogunnyo(더군요)' in interrogative and exclamatory sentences. '-Deora^3(Talking to oneself)' can just be used in interrogative sentences because speech is done as if speakers ask themselves alone. 선어말어미 '-더-'의 관형사형 Constraints of '-Deon^1', the article type of '-Deo-', the prefinal ending, was analyzed after examining constrains of preceding verb of '-Deon^1' and the meanings of '-Deon' and '-Eotdeon'. For the preceding verb types of '-Deon^1' that 'incomplete' and 'one time and repetition' functions are added, instant verbs are constrained. The preceding verb types of '-Eotdeon' that 'complete' and 'one time and repetition' functions are added are not constrained. And meaning constraints of '-Deon^1' and '-Eotdeon' are divided into 'incomplete' and 'complete' constraints, 'past and continuous' constraints, and 'one time and repetition' constraints.
Chapter 4 presented error aspects related to '-Get-' and '-Deo-', the prefinal endings arranged, according to their syntactic constraints. And a teaching and learning plan of '-Get-' and '-Deo-', the prefinal endings, was designed by using the five level teaching model of 'Warm-up → Presentation → Practice → Use → Follow-up' based on the communication-centered teaching methods.
The warm-up stage is to draw contents about '-Get-' and '-Deo-' naturally for arranging lessens smoothly by arousing academic motivation and their interest. '-Get-' and '-Deo-' variously used in the method that teachers ask students questions and communicate with them were introduced. The presentation stage is to present meanings to elementary learners to make them recognize the forms and usage of '-Get-' and '-Deo-' and do syntactic constraints by meaning to intermediate and advanced learners. In the practice stage, various exercises were presented to make learners understand syntactic constraints of '-Get-' and '-Deo-'. In the use stage made learners accustomed to syntactic constraints of '-Get-' and '-Deo-' by utilizing scripts of Korean TV dramas, 'Full House', 'You Are Beautiful', and 'The Innocent Man'. The study examined how the person, predicates, the tense, and sentence types are composed in the sentences including '-Get-' and '-Deo-' by using the scripts of the TV dramas. The sentences reproduced in real life make students understand situations of syntactic constraints of '-Get-' and '-Deo-' more easily than before. As they are added to the sentences translated into Chinese language, they can make understand them more easily. The important process in this stage is to make students create sentences by themselves by combining each meaning of '-Get-' and '-Deo-' with their real life understanding them. In the follow up stage, the contents presented before were arranged.
As above, this paper studied constraints of person, predicates, the tense, and sentence types to utilize '-Get-' and '-Deo-', the prefinal endings well and the more efficient teaching and learning plan for Chinese learners. The author has the limit to discuss why syntactic constraints of the Korean language is done closely and the paper is locking in discussion because the author is not the native speaker of the Korean language. However, it is expected that this study will help grammar education methods of the Korean language for foreigners as well as the Chinese.
- Issued Date
- Awarded Date
- 2018. 2
- Alternative Author(s)
- Yu, Ting Ting
- 제주대학교 일반대학원
- 대학원 국어국문학과
- Table Of Contents
- 1. 서론 1
1.1. 연구 목적 1
1.2. 연구 방법 4
1.3. 연구사 검토 5
1.4. 논의의 구성 9
2. 이론적 배경 11
2.1. 선어말어미의 의미 11
2.2. 선어말어미의 통사적 제약 13
2.3. 한국어 교수법에 대한 이론 14
3. 선어말어미 '-겠-', '-더-'의 의미 기능과 제약 17
3.1. 선어말어미 '-겠-'의 의미 기능 17
3.2. 선어말어미 '-겠-'의 통사적 제약 19
3.3. 선어말어미 '-더-'의 의미 기능 33
3.4. 선어말어미 '-더-'의 통사적 제약 39
4. 선어말어미 '-겠-', '-더-'의 교수ㆍ학습 방안 54
4.1. 선어말어미 '-겠-', '-더-'의 오류 양상 54
4.2. 선어말어미 '-겠-', '-더-'의 교수ㆍ학습 방안 67
5. 결론 103
참고 문헌 105
- 제주대학교 일반대학원
- 우정정. (2018). 중국인 학습자를 위한 선어말어미 '-겠-', '-더-'에 관한 연구
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