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제주도 令監 신앙과 중국 江南 五通神 신앙 비교 연구

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Alternative Title
A Comparative Study on the Younggam belief in Jeju Island and Wu-Tong Belief in the Jiangnan Area of China
Abstract
The comparison object of this paper is the belief of the Younggam belief of Jeju Island in South Korea and the belief of the Wu-tong in the Jiangnan area of China. The Younggam is a respectful name of Dakkaebi for Jeju islanders. The Younggam belief and the Wu-tong belief both are the branches of ghost belief in Korea and China. The two beliefs have changed in different socio-economic and cultural development backgrounds and different geographical environments. However, completely different variations make it almost impossible for scholars to make any connections between the two beliefs. Therefore, through the investigation of the historical documents and finds that the two are not only on the name of the gods but also in the godhood and sacrificial rites which have many similarities in multiple respects, this study leads to the conclusion that there were communication and influence between the Younggam and Wu-tong. At the same time, the viewpoint of the history of Marine Exchange provides proof to support this conclusion. The beliefs of Dakkaebi and Wu-tong can be traced back to the unified Silla era(676-935) and the Tang Dynasty(618-907) that are more than a thousand years ago. For nearly one thousand years, these two folk beliefs had never been officially approved and endorsed by China and Korea Dynasties. Instead, they had been officially, historically suppressed in those regions. However, these so-called "Evil Gods" who share common feelings and characteristics with human beings that are the most accessible and acceptable gods for local people, because the sufferings and happiness of the human world were tightly related to them. In a sense, the worship of official gods was remote, hard to access, but these "Evil Gods" were indispensable in people's daily life. Under the belief systems dominated by the government, the evil gods of Younggam and Wu-tong sacrifices may retain their original features of traditional folk beliefs, so that they still can survive indefatigably and survive in a highly developed, scientific, and advanced modern society. Therefore, this paper also investigates the development and changes of the two beliefs in modern society through field investigation, thus embodying the "living form" characteristics of the two traditional folk beliefs with a long history, and further emphasizes their regional uniqueness and inheritance value following regional culture and geographical environment. In the mainland of South Korea, with the gradual secularization of Dakkaeebi in legends and folk tales, myths cease to exist, and beliefs fade away; only the Dakkaebi on Jeju Island still exists in the form of Younggam gods. Although some of the temples of Younggam gods were abandoned, the Bonpuli(oral epic poetry of gods in Jeju) of Younggam, which tells the origin of Younggam, were sung over and over again by Simbang(Shaman) which is a unique type of wizard in Jeju Island. Wu-tong belief also exists in this living form. The sorcerer poetry-"Taimu Baojuan," which tells the origin of Wutong gods, is also repeatedly sung by Shiniang(a witch) in the activities of Wutong belief(Xuanjuan). Folk beliefs are determined by people's spiritual needs and are not controlled by the government. These two traditional folk beliefs with a long history reflect the tenacious vitality of folk beliefs, especially the characteristics adapted to regional culture and geographical environment, which make the beliefs of Wutong and Younggam sustainable in the process of changing. Through comparing the belief of Wutong and Younggam, this paper finds the similarity and consistency of the two aspects. The main embodiments are: From the emergence time of the name of Dakkaebi, we can find that the name of Dakkaebi is a mutation of the Chinese pronunciation of the word "Dujiaogui(One-foot ghost)," rather than the opposite. Both of their origins came from mandrill apes or monkeys and had many different forms of deformation. Mandrill or monkeys were considered sexually desirable animals. This image was in accord with their godhoods as the god of sex. Also, both share the image of a group of gods, and this also represents a high degree of uniformity. Like the other deities of East Asia, they have a diversity of godhood, but the core is still the god of sex, the god of wealth, and the god of pestilence. A more important feature is that the two gods have a dual character; namely, they can give people wealth, while they can also dispossess people's wealth; they can cause plague(or disease) while they can also remove plague(or disease) from sufferers. The common conjunction of the core godhood is to show that both beliefs have a shared origin. According to the sacrificial ceremony, both sacrificial offerings have the characteristics of the primitively sacrificial rites of blood sacrifice, which reflects ancient traditions and rituals for ancestors. Furthermore, both of them have forms of public sacrifice and family sacrifice. It reflects the privacy and immorality of this belief, which is directly related to wealth and sex. This connection between the Younggam of Jeju and the Wutong of Jiangnan is not only spread indirectly through the local intermediary of Korea, but also has a large number of direct influence traces. As a result, the belief of Younggam in Jeju Island presents a unique feature which is quite different from that of the Korean mainland, and on the contrary, its features are highly related to that of Jiangnan in China. The study of Maritime History proves that The current represented by the Kuroshio and the strong East Asian monsoon between winter and summer had constructed a communication channel between Jeju and Jiangnan area. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, especially since the Southern Song Dynasty, with the prosperity of commodity economy and the activity of overseas trade in Jiangnan area, the overseas trade between China and Korea once reached a very prosperous level. From the records of a large number of drifters in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, we can see that even in the period when the maritime embargo policy was strictly implemented, the cultural and economic exchanges between East Asia through the sea had never stopped. Of course, most orthodox historians did not pay close attention to this kind of non-governmental exchange. This non-governmental nature of the communication covertly existed in the little-known field of folklife, and also permeated the traditional folk beliefs.
Author(s)
王 艶
Issued Date
2019
Awarded Date
2019. 8
Type
Dissertation
URI
http://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/common/orgView/000000009063
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 서론 1
1. 연구의 범위와 목적 1
2. 선행연구 검토 8
3. 연구방법 16
4. 각 장의 주요 내용 22

Ⅱ. 영감신과 오통신 신앙의 전반적 양상 24
1. 두 신앙의 전승현황 25
2. 두 신의 신명 및 유래 29
3. 두 신앙의 관련성 49
4. 관련성을 가지게 된 원인 51

Ⅲ. 영감신과 오통신의 내력과 형상 57
1. 「영감본풀이」 속 신의 내력 57
2. 󰡔태모보권󰡕 속 신의 내력 62
3. 「영감본풀이」와 󰡔태모보권󰡕의 비교 66
4. 두 신의 형상과 의의 68

Ⅳ. 영감신과 오통신의 의례 83
1. 영감신에 관한 의례 83
2. 오통신의 관한 의례 96
3. 두 신 의례의 비교 106
4. 두 신의 의례적 의의 108
Ⅴ. 영감신과 오통신 신앙의 기능과 의의  116 
1. 영감신의 신격과 신앙적 기능 116
2. 오통신의 신격과 신앙적 기능 125
3. 두 신의 신격 다양화의 원인 137
4. 두 신의 신앙적 의의 143

Ⅵ. 결론 152
1. 요약 및 결론 152
2. 과제와 전망 156

참고문헌 159
부록 166
1. 「서우제소리-영감본풀이」 원문 및 번역 166
2. 「영감놀이」 원문 및 번역 177
3. 「영감본풀이」 각 이본의 줄거리 187
4. 심씨 본 󰡔태모보권󰡕 원문 및 해석 191
영문초록 216
Degree
Doctor
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
王 艶. (2019). 제주도 令監 신앙과 중국 江南 五通神 신앙 비교 연구
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Interdisciplinary Programs > Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Program in Koreanology
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