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자치입법 권한 확대방안 연구

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Alternative Title
A Study on the Method to Expand Legislative Authority of Local Self - Government
Abstract
Local self-government is compared to "Grass-roots democracy" or "the best school of democracy". Further, "仕le best guarantee for its success is the practice of local self-government." Thus, local self-government can be said to coincide with the history of democracy due to its essentially inseparable relation therewith. As modem local self-government in Korea was ensured in the Constitution enacted in 1948 and the Local Self-government Act was first enacted and implemented. However, local self-government has been stopped or distorted due to political upheaval such as suspension of constitution thereafter. As local self-government was reinstated with enforcement of the Constitution and the Local Self-government Act in 1987, which has relatively short history. Notwithstanding, the significance of local self-government based on regional variety and peculiarity was disparaged and damaged, because the efficiency of national administration was recognized as the supreme value by excessive centralization. Although some 20 years have elapsed since the reinstatement of local self-government, this trends actually undergoes restriction depending on centralization culture in the past. The article 117 of the Constitution and the article 22 of the Local Self government Act ensure and restrict local legislative authorities simultaneously. The authorities of local self-government includes legislative authority, administration authority, and financial authority. Among them, local legislative authority is the most essential element. Especially, as the power by which local government may enact general and abstract laws under its own responsibilities within the limits of law in order to regulate and manage local affairs and national affairs delegated to them, the guaranty and expansion of local legislative authority is indispensable element to perform public affairs of its own responsibility within its jurisdiction. Local legislative authority is extensive, since it includes not only ordinances enacted by local council but rules and regulations determined by executive as well as decrees, etc. Among them, ordinances are the most essential and supreme decision making method enacted by the local council which has democratic legitimacy. Thus, the expansion of legislative authority can be said to be that of the self-determination principle. However, local legislative authority has been recognized as subordinate guideline to enforce the national affairs. Such recognition is still unchanged and a lot of problems are embedded, although its significance as the most essential element is emphasized. Considerable efforts have been academically made on the problems of local legislative authority and its improvement method. However, they have been only discussed without any progress to date. The center of discussion is problem on the nature and scope of the local self-government and local legislative authority. These can be said to be the confrontation between the doctrine of the Inherent Rights and the Delegation theory based on the Institutional Guaranty. Local legislative authority is legally restricted by the principle of reserve to law; the principle of legal property right and principle of no taxation without law and principle of legal superiority in accordance with the legal suitability. It is not only restricted by actual national legal system, but only exposed to international environment without being limited to regional problem. Although local legislation authority has been gradually expanded after reinstatement of local self-government, the portion of entrusted ordinances is overwhelmingly high to enforce delegated affairs as the national affairs is 67.7% and local affairs is 32.3% on the basis of ordinances and local legislative authority is restricted. Further, ordinances show many defects so that current local legislative authority has task to improve problem. Meanwhile, the decentralization can be said to be the common idea for local self-government of countries worldwide. Decentralization in Korea has been promoted by the Local Empowerment Act in 1999. However, the promotion of decentralization could not be constantly accelerated and its result is not positively evaluated. Thus, academic discussion is desperately required to embody the constitutional principle and the decentralization principle. According to the traditional opinion of Korea, local legislative authority belongs to subordinate norm composed of ordinances and rules following law of formal meaning which is culminated by the Constitution, laws and presidential decrees and administrative rules. However, the necessity to correct such traditional opinion is presented due to the reinstatement of local self government. Especially, this study think that ordinance regulating purely local affairs as independent and local law enacted by local council which has democratic legitimacy should have independent regulatory power, since it is the most significant and essential element of local self- government. To argue the expansion of local legislative authority, the essence of local self-government should be first examined and the legal character of legislative authority inevitably varies depending on the essence. With respect to the nature and scope of the local self-government of United Kingdom & United States is generally subject to the citizen autonomy based on the Doctrine of the Inherent Rights and local legislative authority is subject to so-called theory on the Ordinance as a law. Compared to them, it is explained that of Germany and Japan is subject to the Delegation Theory based on the Institutional Guaranty and local legislative authority is subject to the theory on Entrusted Legislation. Citizen autonomy by the Doctrine of the Inherent Right is currently existing in the United Kingdom and the United States, instead of being separated only academically in Korea. Namely, it refers to the form where citizen intending to establish local self-government with legal guaranty of state enact the Charter. Thus, the discipline range of self-governing local affairs and local legislative authority as purely local affairs is inevitably different from that of the other states. Local self-government in such form continues in United States as well and established by enacting so-called the Home-rule Charter is increasing. Notwithstanding, that theory in Korea has denied and such fallacy can be said to be the largest obstacle in the progress of local self-government accademically and practically. Local self-government is not stagnant in regular concept, but constantly changing and the center of nature and scope is moving from the theory on the Institutional Delegation to theory on the Inherent Right. The form of local self-government is moving from group self-government to citizen autonomy. Local self-government is the system where citizen independently determine the regional issue related to them. This is why local legislative authority should be recognized as independent determination and actual local self-government should be sought from citizen autonomy. Notwithstanding, they criticize that citizen is still prevented from participating in local self-government due to the tendency of centralization and it is merely miniaturized transplanted by partially entrusting representative system in the unit of state and the bureaucracy of central government to local area. This criticism points out that local self-government as the essence of local self government is still insufficient as that of center of citizen autonomy. The ultimate purpose of local self-government is not only to escape from excessively centralized power, but also to escape from group self- government in order to embody actual citizen autonomy. As the ground of local legislative authority, the Constitution and the Act of Local self-government is quite restricted as uniform and fragmentary legislative authority which fails to enliven the diversity and originality of local area. Although theory has discussed the expansion of the local legislative authority of mainly around this regulation, its center can be said to be the confrontation between the traditional theory on the Delegated Legislation and theory on ordinance law. Due to restriction by the principle of reservation to law, the expansion of local legislative authority has been only discussed without progress. Thus, the expansion of local legislative authority should drive forward new progress through decentralization. As the common idea required by local self-government of modern democratic state is decentralization. It is required to be harmonized with centralization and vertical separation of powers between state and local self- government is required to be mutually balanced. Thus, positive theory needs to be spread in accordance with the requirement of change in new age which pursues decentralization. The power of local self-government should be ensured so that the essence and intent may be well realized. It can be said that the core lies in expanding and reinforcing local legislative authority. In that sense, this study presents improvement methods of the legislation policies to expand legislative authority. It can be summarized as follows; First, it is to amend the Constitution to decentralization type. To amend the constitution, the recognition on local self-government and local legislative authority should be converted first. The principles of decentralization are subsidiarity principle, and it is to guaranty of the existence of local self government, the own self-responsibility, the local financial authority, expansion of the local empowerment of central power. The range to enact ordinances should be expanded from within the limits of law" to within the limits not conflict with general laws" Second, after amending the Cons仕tution to decentralization type, the enactment of the basic act of local self-government(draft) is discussed. As the basic act as a superior position needs to be granted to it compared with the other laws with respect to local self-government so that systematic matching may be completed. This act should include specific discipline range and enactment standard of the legislative authority. The discipline range and enactment standard of entrusted ordinances for "self-governing ordinance" and "byelaws" entrusted delegated affairs should be clearly enacted respectively. The jurisdiction of the local legislation authority over agency delegation affairs should be changed from local executives to local legislatives which has democratic legitimacy. Finally, the Jeju Special Self-Government shall secure the Constitutional status itself in order to achieve high standard local autonomy and substantial decentralization, and special status should be defined more deary. Further, self determination authority to submit the petition of the Bill on the Jeju Special Act as well as the Exception Rule should be expanded. And systematic inconsistency over the Jeju Special Act have to be deary defined by distinguishing the delegated affairs, transferred affairs, agency delegation affairs and the complexity of the articles rearranged. It is expected that local self-government meeting the diversity and locality can be embodied if those methods of legislation policies to expand the local legislative authority is firmly concretized.
Author(s)
조시중
Issued Date
2019
Awarded Date
2019. 8
Type
Dissertation
URI
http://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/common/orgView/000000009184
Alternative Author(s)
Cho, Si Joong
Affiliation
제주대학교 대학원
Department
대학원 법학과
Advisor
강주영
Table Of Contents
제1장 서론 1
제1절 연구의 목적 1
제2절 연구의 범위 3
제3절 연구의 방법 4
제2장 지방자치의 의미와 자치입법권한의 본질 5
제1절 지방자치의 개념 6
1. 지방자치의 의미 6
2. 지방자치의 본질 9
(1) 고유권설 9
(2) 전래권설 12
(3) 제도적 보장설 13
(4) 신고유권설 . 16
(5) 검토 . 16
3. 지방자치의 유형과 종류 18
(1) 지방자치의 유형 18
(2) 지방자치단체의 종류 23
제2절 자치입법권한의 의미오 본질 . 27
1. 자치입법권한의 개념 . 27
2. 자치입법권한의 종류 . 29
(1) 조례 29
(2) 규칙 38
3. 자치입법권한의 본질 . 40
(1) 조례자주입법설 40
(2) 전래설에 근거한 자치입법권한 43
(3) 조례위임입법설 43
(4) 신고유권설에 근거한 자치입법권한 . 44
(5) 검토 45
4. 자치입법권한의 규율 범위. 47
(1) 소관사항의 원칙 . 47
(2) 지방자치 법상 그 사무의 종류. 48
제3절 지방자치 관념의 변화 . 71
1. 개념론 71
(1) 전통적 개념론 . 71
(2) 기능적 개념론 . 72
(3) 동적 개념론 73
(4) 검토 74
2. 지방분권과 지방자치 . 75
(1) 지방분권의 의의 75
(2) 보충성의 원칙의 의의 . 78
(3) 지방이양의 의의 80
(4) 우리나라의 지방분권 추진 . 81
제4절 소결 . 84
제3장 자치입법권한의 한계. 88
제1절 법치주의와 자치입법권한의 한계 88
1. 법률유보의 원칙과 조례 88
(1) 법률유보의 원칙과 규제법정주의의 의의 88
(2) "법령의 범위 안에서"의 해석론 . 90
(3) "구체적으로 범위를 정하여"의 해석론 92
(4) 지방자치법제22조(조례) 제1항 단서의 해석론 93
(5) 학설 . 93
(6) 판례 . 95
(7) 검토 96
2. 죄형법정주의와 조례 . 98
(1) 죄형법정주의의 의의 98
(2) 학설 99
(3) 판례 . 100
(4) 검토 . 101
3. 재산권법정주의와 조례 104
(1) 재산권법정주의의 의의 . 104
(2) 학설 . 105
(3) 판례 . 107
(4) 검토 . 108
4. 조세법률주의와 조례 109
(1) 조세법률주의의 의의 109
(2) 조세법률주의의 내용 . 110
(3) 조세법률주의의 예외 111
(4) 학설 . 112
(5) 판례 . 113
(6) 검토 . 113
5. 헌법의 일반원칙과 조례 115
(1) 평등의 원칙 . 115
(2) 이익 형량의 원칙 116
(3) 과잉금지의 원칙 . 117
6. 법률우위의 원칙과 조례 118
(1) 법률위위의 원칙의 의의 . 118
(2) 법률우위의 원칙의 예외 . 119
제2절 차등분권 지역-제주특별자치도에 있어서의 자치입법권한의 한계 126
1. '제주특별법'의 한계 . 126
(1) 제주특별자치도의 법률적 지위 127
(2) 특수한 지위의 불확실성 128
(3) 조문 구조의 복잡성 . 129
(4) 자기 결정권의 제한 131
(5) 법률체계의 부정합성 132
(6) 국가사무의 처 리제한 . 138
2. 특별자치 입법권한의 한계 . 139
(1) 이양된 자치입법권한 미활용 139
(2) 위임근거의 실효성 부족 . 140
(3) 법률유보의 원칙에 의한 제한 143
(4) 초과조례 추가조례 근거 미활용 . M 6
(5) 주민자치의 한계 . 147
제3절 소결 149
제4장 주요국에 있어서의 자치입법권한의 범위와 내용 152
제1절 영국 152
1. 전통적인 자치입법권한 153
2. 자치입법권한의 변화 155
(1) 조례의 정의 155
(2) 조례의 규율범위 . 156
(3) 조례 제정요건 . 157
(4) 조례 제정의 제한 158
3. 자치입법권한의 예외: 지역법률 159
4. 권한유월의 법칙 160
키21 . 161
1. '지방자치헌장' 제정 권한 . 162
2. 조례 제정과 집행권한 . 165
(1) 경찰권한 165
(2) 자치사무의 범위와 논란 . 167
3. 최근의 자치입법 경향 . 168
(1) 히든 힐스 시티 규칙과 규정 168
(2) LA 카운티 공동체 표준구 규정 169
(3) 칼라바사스 시티 친환경 식품포장용기 사용조례 169
(4) 산 디에고 카운티 시민 법률집행 조사위원회 조례. 170
(5) 칼라바사스 시티 간접흡연 통제조례 . 170
4. 법률선점주의 . 171
(1) 연방법률의 선점 . 171
(2) 주 법률 선점주의 171
(3) 법률선점의 형태 . 172
(4) 법률선점주의의 예외 173
(5) 판례 . 175
제3절 독일 179
1. 지방자치 고권. 180
2. 자치입법권한 . 183
(1) 자치입법권한의 근거 183
(2) 자치입법권한의 규율범위 . 185
3. 연방법 우선주의 . 187
(1) 행정연방주의 187
(2) 원칙과 예외 . 188
4. 자치사무 구성방식 (모델) . 190
(1) 이원론(이원적 모델) . 190
(2) 일원론(일원적 모델) . 191
제4절 일본 195
1. 지방자치의 본지 195
2. 한 지방에 적용하는 특별법 . 196
3. 자치입법권한 . 197
(1) 자치입법권한의 근거 197
(2) 자치입법권한의 규율범위 . 198
4. 지방자치제도의 개혁 199
(1) 국가와 지방자치단체의 역할 분담 199
(2) 기관위임사무의 폐지 201
(3) 위임조례의 폐지 . 202
5. 국법선점이론 . 202
(1) 전통적인 국법선점이론 202
(2) 수정이론 204
제5절 시사점 . 205
1. 자치입법권한의 공통점과 특징 . 205
2. 지방자치 고유권설의 특징 206
3. 독일의 자치사무 구분체계 . 207
4. 일본의 지방자치제도 개혁 209
5. 법률선점주의의 예외 211
제5장 자치입법권한 확대방안 . 212
제1절 지방분권형 헌법 개정방향에 관한 논의 212
1. 자치입법권한의 본질 검토 212
2. 지방분권의 기본원칙과 추진방향 . 215
(1) 지방분권 원칙의 명문화 215
(2) 지방자치단체 존립의 보장 . 216
(3) 전권한성과 자기책임성의 보장 219
(4) 지방재정고권의 보장 220
(5) "법령에 위반되지 않는 범위 내에서"
222
제2절 지방자치기본법(안) 검토 225
1. 논의의 필요성 225
2. 지방분권의 구체화 방안 227
(1) 기초자치단체 우선의 원칙 보장 . 227
(2) 실질적 주민자치 확대 228
(3) 자치사무의 이원성 보장 230
(4) 국가최저기준 설정 232
(5) 포괄적 위임 확대 234
(6) 자치사무의 범위 확대 . 235
3. 조례의 규율범위와 제정기준 설정 방안 . 237
(1) 자치사무와 자치조례 237
(2) 위임사무와 위임조례 238
(3) 기관위임사무에 대한 자치입법권한 변경 239
4. 자치입법권한의 실효성 확보 . 241
(1) 지방자치법제22조 제1항 단서의 폐지 241
(2) 벌칙 제정 권한의 확대 . 243
제3절 제주특별자치도 입법권한 확대 방안 . 246
1. 제주특별자치도의 헌법적 지위 확보 246
2. '제주특별법'의 정비. 248
(1) 종합적인 입법평가 필요성 . 248
(2) '제주특별법' 법률안 입법청원권 확보 . 248
(3) 자기결정권의 확대 249
(4) 자치입법권한의 수용성 확대 251
(5) 자치입법권한의 특례 규정 253
3. 주민자치 활성화 . 255
제6장 결론 및 정리. 257
참고문헌 260
Degree
Doctor
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
[1]조시중, “자치입법 권한 확대방안 연구,” 제주대학교 대학원, 2019.
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