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한라산의 나비 다양성과 멸종위기종인 산굴뚝나비 서식지 보전에 관한 연구

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Alternative Title
Studies on the Diversity of Butterfly Species in Mt. Hallasan and Habitat Conservation of the Endangered Hipparchia autonoe (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Abstract
This study focuses on the fields of research on the change of butterfly colonies in Mt. Hallasan, the population of the Hipparchia autonoe (Esper 1784), genetic diversity of H. autone, and the conservation and restoration of its habitats.
In order to investigate the population dynamics of H. autone in Mt. Hallasan, 3 years of data from 2018 to 2020 were pooled for analysis, and the study location covered an area of 7.2 km from Yeongsil to Baengnokdam, a crater lake that sits on top of the mountain. The temporal and spatial distribution of the species that had appeared in nine study zones were analyzed by using a line transect. In addition, a study on the population of H. autone, an endangered species, inhabiting the alpine area of the mountain was conducted using Mark-Release-Recapture (MRR), focusing on the areas of Janggumok and subalpine meadows in 2014. Lastly, habitat temperature and humidity data were collected and analyzed, habitat environment and vegetation surveys were conducted, and effective measures for habitat conservation and restoration of H. autone were drawn up based on its ecological characteristics and life cycles.
A three-year monitoring on the change of butterfly colonies in Mt. Hallasan identified 9,992 individuals of 33 species of 5 families: 27 individuals of 4 species of Pailionidae, 368 individuals of 2 species of Pieridae, 70 individuals of 4 species of Silphidae, 8,482 individuals of 18 species of Nymphalidae and 1,045 individuals of 5 species of Hesperiidae. As for the number of species identified by study zone, 3,269 individuals (32.7%) of 23 species, the largest number, were identified in Section H, with H. autone and Aphantopus hyperantus (Linnaeus, 1758) being the dominant species. The figures on a monthly basis showed that 4,076 individuals (40.8%) of 24 species, the largest number, appeared in July with H. autone and Aphantopus hyperantus superior in numbers.
According to the cluster analysis, the dominance index was high in Section A at 0.59 and low in Section E at 0.09. By month, the index was as high as 0.53 in June and as low as 0.11 in July. The diversity index indicated 2.34 for Section E and 0.30 for Section A. On a monthly basis, it was 1.97 in July and 1.12 in June. Species Richness index was high at 3.74 for Section D and low at 0.74 for Section A. The month with the highest index was August at 3.21 while the lowest was May at 1.55. The evenness index reached 0.53, the highest, in Section E but 0.13, the lowest, in Section A. According to month-based data, the index rose to 0.50 in September but fell to 0.26 in June. H. autone, distributed in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula and in Mt. Halla on Jeju Island, is observed once a year, from July to August, at an altitude of 1,500m or above. According to the meteorological data, the optimum activity temperature of imagines is 15-25℃.
H. autone overwinters as 2-3 instar larvae and spawns its eggs at surrounding places such as stems of Festuca ovina L., 1753., its food plant, or on the bedrock. The female laid 9.6-18.6 eggs per day with the average size of 1.222 mm wide and 1.274 mm long. The population of H. autone in Mt. Hallasan is divided into two groups depending on the altitude: one inhabiting Witsae Oreum and below and the other, Janggumok and Baengnokdam, the summit of the mountain. As the distance from Baengnokdam increases, the size of the population decreases. Given the size of the population by habitat, the population of Seonjakjiwat Plain, a natural habitat, is expected to remain relatively stable, while the size of the population of Janggumok, the vegetation damage/recovery area, is expected to decrease as vegetation is restored. The number of individuals appeared in the Janggumok area was 700 or more and the estimated number of individuals per day was 1,000 in 2013. The ratio of males was about twice that of females, with the average number of days of survival being 2.75 for males and 2.80 for females. The average distance traveled by males was 139 meters while by femles, 115 meters in 2014.
In terms of habitat restoration and conservation measures, it is recognized that a range of restoration actions are needed in Yeongsil, Witse Oreum, and Mansae Dongsan. Three monitoring sites were selected for habitat conservation accordingly and Witse Oreum was designated as the core conservation area since the size of the population of H. autone is expected to gradually decrease due to climate change and changes in habitat vegetation. In addition, as a result of a comprehensive evaluation reflecting the patch network analysis, Witse Oreum should be preserved intensively as the area serves as pathways for population in Mt. Hallasan.
A comprehensive evaluation that reflects ecological factors, habitat environment, and climate showed that conservation of habitat environment is important as H. autone is directly affected by ecological factors and climate. Therefore, for conservation and restoration purposes, it is necessary to monitor, plant, and secure space for Festuca ovina L., 1753. The study result shows that the population of H. autone in Mt. Hallasan is expected to gradually decrease due to climate change and environmental changes of the habitat and be distributed around 1,700 meters above sea level.
Author(s)
이영돈
Issued Date
2021
Awarded Date
2021. 2
Type
Dissertation
URI
https://oak.jejunu.ac.kr/handle/2020.oak/23605
Affiliation
제주대학교 대학원
Department
대학원 농학과
Advisor
김동순
Table Of Contents
I. 서언 1
Ⅱ. 연구사 4
Chapter Ⅰ. 한라산 나비군집 변화 조사 7
1. 서 론 7
2. 재료 및 방법 10
1) 조사지 개황 10
2) 조사 일정 11
3) 조사 방법 11
4) 조사코스 선정 및 조사구간 설정 12
5) 자료의 분석 12
3. 결 과 15
1) 조사지역의 기상 15
2) 전체 분류군 및 종조성 15
3) 연도별 분석 16
4) 월별 분석 17
5) 과별 분석 20
6) 구간별 분석 22
7) 주요 출현종의 분포 특성 27
8) 군집 분석 30
9) 선행연구를 통한 한라산 나비류의 서식 가능 고도 분포 37
4. 고 찰 39
Chapter Ⅱ. 멸종위기종 산굴뚝나비 개체군 연구 45
1. 서 론 45
2. 재료 및 방법 47
1) 조사 기간 47
2) 조사지 개황 47
3) 조사 지역의 선정 50
4) 조사 지역의 기상 50
4) 조사 방법 51
5) 자료의 분석 52
3. 결 과 59
1) 한라산의 기상자료와 나비개체군 59
2) 산굴뚝나비 생활사 61
3) 산굴뚝나비 분포현황 65
4) 지역별 개체군 크기 66
5) 산굴뚝나비의 경쟁종 분석 70
6) 산굴뚝나비 개체군 동태 72
4. 고 찰 85
Chapter Ⅲ. 한라산 산굴뚝나비 서식지 보전 연구 90
1. 서 론 90
2. 재료 및 방법 92
1) 산굴뚝나비 개체군 EPA 민감성 평가 비교 92
2) 산굴뚝나비의 서식지 유형과 개체군 크기 전망 93
3) 모니터링 체계 구축 93
4) 산굴뚝나비 보전 방안 93
5) 서식지 연결성 평가 및 핵심 보전지역의 설정 93
3. 결 과 94
1) 산굴뚝나비 개체군 EPA 민감성 평가 비교 94
2) 산굴뚝나비 서식지 유형과 개체군 크기 전망 101
3) 모니터링 체계 구축 103
4) 산굴뚝나비 보전 방안 106
5) 서식지 연결성 평가 및 핵심 보전지역의 설정 114
4. 고 찰 116
Ⅴ. 종합고찰 121
Ⅵ. 적 요 126
Ⅶ. 인용문헌 128
Appendix 1. The number of butterfly Individuals monthly observed at each site in 2018 145
Appendix 2. The number of butterfly Individuals monthly observed at each site in 2019 146
Appendix 3. The number of butterfly individuals monthly observed at each site in 2020 147
Appendix 4. Distribution characteristics of major species 148
Appendix 5. Dominant species 153
감사의 글 154
Degree
Doctor
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
이영돈. (2021). 한라산의 나비 다양성과 멸종위기종인 산굴뚝나비 서식지 보전에 관한 연구
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General Graduate School > Agricultural Science
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