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Ecology and Genetic Identification of Alien Cervid in Jeju Island, South Korea

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Alternative Title
제주도 외래사슴류의 생태 및 유전적 종 동정
Abstract
This study investigated the ecology of alien sika deer on Jeju Island, with particular reference to their distribution, activity pattern, diet, and phylogeny using direct, indirect, and molecular analysis methods from Oct. 2018 – Dec. 2020. Research on the distribution range using direct and indirect survey methods identifies that the alien sika on Jeju Island have expanded their ranges towards the eastern and western parts of Hallasan National Park, taking into regard that they were initially released into the northern part. The southward expansion of their range has not yet been observed. This expansion into new ranges is driven by the availability of water, food, and climatic conditions. Sika deer were observed to prefer altitudes ranging from 550-1,100m, as this range is less preferred by native roe deer and has a less anthropogenic disturbance. Some illegal translocations, deliberate releases, or escapes of farmed individuals account for the increased deer population. Due to a lack of predatory or anthropogenic disturbance, the population will continue to increase beyond the current distribution range, hence a management strategy needs to be implemented. Results on activity patterns using camera traps revealed that sika deer were active throughout both day and night, but had activity peaks towards dawn and dusk. On the seasonal scales, they showed variation in their activity pattern (dawn and dusk in spring-autumn; day and night in winter) that could be linked to marked changes in temperatures and stress established by weather conditions. Sika deer displayed a higher to the lower extent of activity overlap with eight other species, including Siberian roe deer, red deer, wild boar, Asian badgers, Jeju weasels, domestic cattle, humans, and dogs. The native Siberian roe deer showed a higher incidence of activity overlap with sika deer in both summer and winter seasons, suggesting that the two ungulates had a common dietary preference. In contrast to summer, Jeju weasels and domestic cattle were not observed during winter seasons. In both of the seasons, activity overlap was lowest for humans and dogs. Higher activity overlap among morphologically different species causes conflicts, hence displacement of weak/small species cannot be negated. A proactive management strategy is recommended. Sika deer are dynamic in the procurement of food resources, as they fit into both the browsing and grazing categories. In this study, sika deer were found to consume 95 plant taxa of four categories (forb-climbers, graminoids, ferns and browse) using morphological and molecular analysis. Plant species belonging to the family Poaceae were consumed in a higher proportion. A higher number of dietary plants was found in summer (47 taxa) and lower in winter (27 taxa). Graminoids and forb-climbers primarily made up the spring and summer diets, whereas browse and ferns served as autumn and winter diets. This study revealed that the dietary preference of sika deer changes with the seasons. From the analysis of 21 tissue samples, five distinct groups of CytB haplotypes were identified, which clearly shows the presence of two haplotypes of sika deer (C. n. yakushimae and C. n. taiouanus), and three haplotypes of red deer (C. elaphus). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sika deer subspecies C. n. yakushimae represents the mitochondrial lineage to Japanese sika deer, whereas C. n. taiouanus corresponds with a Taiwanese lineage. The red deer (C. elaphus) showed its lineage with Chinese, south-eastern Tibetan and western Sichuan populations. Through the analysis of the branching pattern of the maximum likelihood tree, no sequence mutations seem to have occurred. For the possible future hybridisation between sika with sympatric species, study should be carried out using nuclear genes.
This study provides knowledge on the ecology of alien sika deer on Jeju Island. The finding suggests that integrative studies using advanced technology are highly recommended. Furthermore, an extensive survey using a large number of fecal samples and tissue samples from different locations and various individuals is required to confirm their distribution range and determine their evolutionary relationships, respectively.
Author(s)
반자드 마니람
Issued Date
2021
Awarded Date
2021. 8
Type
Dissertation
URI
https://dcoll.jejunu.ac.kr/common/orgView/000000010304
https://oak.jejunu.ac.kr/handle/2020.oak/23859
Alternative Author(s)
Banjade, Maniram
Affiliation
제주대학교 대학원
Department
대학원 생물교육전공
Advisor
Oh, Hong Shik
Table Of Contents
I. INTRODUCTION 1
1. General introduction 1
1) Invasion biology of mammalian species 2
2) Cervids introduction 3
2. Ecology and introduction status of cervids 5
1) Sika deer (Cervus nippon) 5
2) Red deer (Cervus elaphus) 7
3) Elk (Cervus canadensis) 10
3. Distribution, activity pattern, food resources and molecular study 12
1) Distribution 12
2) Activity pattern 13
3) Diet selection 15
4) Molecular study of sika deer 16
5) Phylogeny of sika deer 17
4. Research purposes 18
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS 20
1. Study area 21
1) Jeju Island 20
2) Flora and fauna 21
3) Endangered and threatened species 24
4) Hallasan National Park 24
2. Camera trap and direct observation 25
1) Camera trapping method 25
2) On-field survey for species verification 26
3) Direct observation for dietary items identification 27
4) Data analysis 27
4. Molecular study 29
1) Samples collection and DNA extraction 29
2) PCR amplification of CYTB gene 30
3) DNA sequencing and phylogeny 31
4) Meta-barcoding for dietary items 31
III. RESULTS 33
1. Distribution 33
2. Activity pattern 42
1) Seasonal activity pattern of sika deer 44
2) Diel temporal overlap of sika deer with sympatric species in summer 46
3) Temporal response of sika deer to human activity in summer 49
4) Diel temporal overlap of sika deer with sympatric species in winter 50
5) Temporal response of sika deer to human activity in winter 52
3. Dietary resource used 53
1) Seasonal diet 53
4. Molecular study 57
1) Molecular study of alien Cervids using tissue samples 57
IV. DISCUSSION 62
1. Distribution 62
2. Activity pattern 65
1) Seasonal activity pattern of sika deer . 65
2) Diel and temporal overlap of sika deer in summer and winter seasons . 66
3) Effect of human interference on sika deer in summer and winter seasons 68
3. Diet composition 70
4. Molecular study of Cervids using tissue samples 72
V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE IMPLICATIONS 76
VI. REFERENCES 81
Degree
Doctor
Publisher
제주대학교 대학원
Citation
반자드 마니람. (2021). Ecology and Genetic Identification of Alien Cervid in Jeju Island, South Korea
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